6. Which is not a characteristic of fungi? A. Most are single celled B. It is a saprophyte D. It lives moist areas E. All the above are characteristics of the fungi C. It is a decomposer 7. Why is the relationship between most mycorhizal fungi and their host plants considered mutualistic? A. They live in close physical association. B. Both species benefit from the association. C. The host plant cannot live without the mycorhizae. D. The mycorhizae cannot live without the host plant 8. What do seeds contain? A. Male gametophyte and nutritive tissue. B. Female gametophyte and nutritive tissue. C. Embryo and nutritive tissue. D. Mature sporophyte and nutritive tissue 9. Haploid unicellular spores are produced in the sporangia via: A. mitosis. B. fertilization. C. conjugation. D. budding. E. meiosis. 10. How can nonvascular plants survive on land without true leaves, stems, and roots? A. They are small enough to allow minerals to diffuse throughout their bodies. B. They live in moist habitats. C. They have a thick cuticle to prevent water loss. D. Both a and b. E. Both b and c 11. The hyphae of arbuscular mycorhizal fungi (AMF) form bush or balloon-like structures after making contact with the plasma membrane of a root cell. Why? A. The anchor the fungus inside the root, so the association is more permanent. B. They increase the surface are available for the transfer of nutrients. C. They produce toxins that protect the plant cells against herbivores. D. They break down cellulose and lignin in the plant cell wall. 12. A sporophyte dominated life cycle originated in the: A. Green algae. B. Non-vascular plants. C. Seedless vascular plants. D. Gymnosperms E. Angiosperms. 13. The appearance of cuticle and stomata are correlated with what event in the evolution of plants? A. The first erect growth forms. B. The first woody tissues. C. Growth on land. D. The evolution of the first water conducting tissues.
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