According to the American Public Health Association (n.d.), public health is def

According to the American Public Health Association (n.d.), public health is defined as promoting and protecting the health of people and the communities where we live. Public health informatics is the systematic application of information, computer science, and technology to public health practice, research, and learning (CDC, 2014). The two concepts are important because they build bridges across siloed public health work areas by “translating” between these communities, creating opportunities for interoperable information pathways”. Assess the roles of informatics in public health and EHR. Include the following aspects in the discussion: 
1) Discuss the similarities and differences in public health informatics and clinical informatics. 
2) Provide an example of a reporting system and registry in public health and describe them in detail. 
3) Why is it important to address population health? 4) Why is EHR important in public health informatics?
In every organization and area, the information system has changed dramatically. Without information systems, no traditional service can advance or improve, especially in the healthcare field. Healthcare-related informatics includes public health informatics (PHI) and clinical informatics (CI). PHI is the systematic use of data, machine learning, and computers in public health practice, study, and education. CI is the systematic use of computers and data to improve patient care strategies. CI hubs on improving individual health, while PHI attempts to enhance community health. According to Coleman & Delea (2013), PHI uses information technologies to accomplish illness prevention and health promotion goals more effectively, efficiently, and inexpensively. Whereas according to ASHP (2016), CI focuses to improve patients’ outcomes and patient satisfaction. PHI and CI are interested in promoting sources that will enable in improving healthcare services as well as the healthcare system. PHI is rather inexpensive as per the area of coverage while CI, on the other hand, is expensive though it concentrates on an individual and small group of people. When compared to PHI, which has a far larger scope and requires much more time, CI can build and reform systems more quickly. Despite their similarities and differences, both informatics is critical for improving, creating, and transforming into a healthy way of life.
A health system can provide useful data for making rational choices depending on the adoption of regular reporting systems. In most public health, normal electronic reporting systems are being engaged and are mainly electronic recording, based on the objectives of the institution.  Healthcare organizations implemented a Critical Incident Reporting System (CIRS) to help identify possible dangers and improve patient safety. CIR systems are now widely used in healthcare organizations. The main principle of CIRS is to report personal observed safety-related occurrences so they may be systematically studied and learned from (Sendlhofer et. al., 2019). A registry is a system for tracking diseases, their severity, treatment strategies, and recurrence. One example is the COVID-19 register. The development and execution of initiatives to restrict the spread of COVID-19 have been successful primarily to reliable data (Bello-Chavolla, et al., 2021).
It is critical that accurate and easily accessible interoperability computer systems for population health be created and placed into use. This strong focus on population health will place greater emphasis on public health promotion, illness surveillance, and preventing disease at a lower cost. Access to information through a digital system creates awareness. Electronic health records (EHRs) are widely used in public health informatics. EHRs help public health information systems plan, develop, and create constant objectives. It helps to assess an information system’s ability to achieve healthcare goals and promotes communication among various systems. 
ASHP Statement on the Pharmacist’s Role in Clinical Informatics, American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, Volume 73, Issue 6, (15 March 2016), Pages 410–413,
Bello-Chavolla, O. Y., Antonio-Villa, N. E., Fernández-Chirino, L., Guerra, E. C., Fermín-Martínez, C. A., Márquez-Salinas, A., Vargas-Vázquez, A., & Bahena-López, J. P. (2021). Diagnostic performance and clinical implications of rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen testing in Mexico using real-world nationwide COVID-19 registry data. PLoS ONE, 16(8), 1–15.
Coleman, E. W., & Delea, K. C. (2013). The use of public health informatics to improve environmental health practice. Journal of environmental health, 76(5), 44–45.
Sendlhofer, G., Schweppe, P., Sprincnik, U., Gombotz, V., Leitgeb, K., Tiefenbacher, P., Kamolz, L.-P., & Brunner, G. (2019). Deployment of Critical Incident Reporting System (CIRS) in public Styrian hospitals: a five-year perspective. BMC Health Services Research, 19(1), 1–8.

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