Address the following Short Answer prompts for your Assignment. Be sure to include references to the Learning Resources for this week.
1. In 4 or 5 sentences, describe the anatomy of the basic unit of the nervous system, the neuron. Include each part of the neuron and a general overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse. Be specific and provide examples.
2. Answer the following (listing is acceptable for these questions):
· What are the major components that make up the subcortical structures?
· Which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction?
· What are the two key neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control?
3. In 3 or 4 sentences, explain how glia cells function in the central nervous system. Be specific and provide examples.
4. The synapse is an area between two neurons that allows for chemical communication. In 3 or 4 sentences, explain what part of the neurons are communicating with each other and in which direction does this communication occur? Be specific.
5. In 35 sentences, explain the concept of neuroplasticity. Be specific and provide examples.
Neurons are the fundamental building blocks of the neurological system. A neuron has a nucleus, axons, and dendrites. Axons travel in bundles across the nerves (Stadelmann et al., 2019). Axons and dendrites facilitate long-distance neural transmission. Neurons use electrochemistry. Chemicals as well as electrical charges are responsible for the transmission of information between neurons. When a signal is recognized by the dendrites, it is chemically transmitted to the soma and, if it is powerful enough, it is also transmitted to the axon and the terminal buttons. In the event that the signal is received by the terminal buttons, it causes them to produce neurotransmitters, which then enable them to communicate with other neurons via synapses. Alterations in the electrical charge of the axon are what create the electrical signal produced by the neuron. When the axon is at its normal resting potential, there is a greater concentration of negatively charged ions inside the neuron than there is outside (de Bakker et al., 2021). When the portion of the axon that is nearest to the nerve cell is triggered by an electric signals from the dendrites, the cellular membranes in this initial segment of the axon opens its gates, which allows positive-charged sodium ions to enter the cell. If the signal is strong enough, this process continues. Cont…
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