Chapter review assignments help ensure that you understand chapter contents.
Your Chapter Reviews will pass through an originality check called Turn It In. This function will verify that you have used your own words. You should create your own examples – do NOT use examples from the book.
PSYC 005: Research Methods
Review Sheet: Chapter 6 – Non-Experimental Research
1. Describe the characteristics of non-experimental research. How can we tell the difference between experiment and non-experimental research?
2. When is non-experimental research used? Identify at least 3 situations when non-experimental research is useful.
3. In the spaces below, write a description and example of cross-sectional, longitudinal, and cross-sequential/sequential studies. Design your own studies, do not use examples from the book or the internet.
4. What type of validity usually decreases when a variable is not manipulated in a study? Why does that validity decrease?
5. What type of validity usually increases when a variable is not manipulated in a study? Why does that validity increase?
6. Design a correlational study at least one nominal/categorical variable. Describe the research question. Describe the nominal/categorical variable and the levels. Describe the dependent variable.
7. Interpret, as best you can, the following Pearson’s r values.
Strength of Relation (weak, moderate, strong)
Direction of Relation (positive or negative)
r = .89
r = -.12
R = -.71
8. What is qualitative research? What is its purpose? Design a simple qualitative study and describe it.
9. Describe an example of a situation when you would want to use qualitative research instead of quantitative research. Explain why qualitative research is a good choice for the situation.
10. What are interviews? Describe various levels of structure that interviews may involve.
11. What are focus groups? Identify one limitation of information gathered through focus groups. Describe an example of a topic that would work well for focus groups. Which topics lend themselves best for focus groups?
PSYC 005: Research Methods
Review Sheet: Chapter 7 – Survey Research
1. Describe “two important characteristics” of survey research according to the textbook.
2. Who are respondents?
3. Is survey research usually experimental or non-experimental? Explain your answer.
4. Identify the 5 cognitive processes respondents use when they answer survey items.
5. Define item-order effect and provide an example of it that is not from the book.
6. Design two open-ended items on the topic of online learning.
7. Design two closed-ended items on the topic of online.
8. What is a Likert scale? Design two closed-ended questions using a Likert scale. Discuss the importance of balance on both sides of an item. (Take some time, too, to consider how to pronounce “Likert”…you might be surprised!)
9. Identify the meaning of the acronym BRUSO. (What does each letter represent?) Why is it important to consider each of these aspects of research.
10. Describe two things that should be included in the Introduction of a survey.
11. Differentiate between probability and non-probability sampling.
12. What is sampling bias? As best you can, explain how it impacts the outcome of a survey study.
13. Identify two survey tools for online survey administration that are mentioned in the textbook.
Research Methods in Psychology
Research Methods in Psychology
RAJIV S. JHANGIANI; I-CHANT A. CHIANG; CARRIE CUTTLER; AND DANA C. LEIGHTON
KWANTLEN POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY
Research Methods in Psychology by Rajiv S. Jhangiani, I-Chant A. Chiang, Carrie Cuttler, & Dana C. Leighton is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.
This adaptation constitutes the fourth edition of this textbook, and builds upon the second Canadian edition by Rajiv S. Jhangiani (Kwantlen Polytechnic University) and I-Chant A. Chiang (Quest University Canada), the second American edition by Dana C. Leighton (Texas A&M University-Texarkana), and the third American edition by Carrie Cuttler (Washington State University) and feedback from several peer reviewers coordinated by the Rebus Community. This edition is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
About this Book xi
About the Authors of the Current Edition xvi
Chapter I. The Science of Psychology
1. Methods of Knowing 3
2. Understanding Science 6
3. Goals of Science 10
4. Science and Common Sense 12
5. Experimental and Clinical Psychologists 15
6. Key Takeaways and Exercises 19
Chapter II. Overview of the Scientific Method
7. A Model of Scientific Research in Psychology 25
8. Finding a Research Topic 28
9. Generating Good Research Questions 36
10. Developing a Hypothesis 40
11. Designing a Research Study 45
12. Analyzing the Data 49
13. Drawing Conclusions and Reporting the Results 52
14. Key Takeaways and Exercise 54
Chapter III. Research Ethics
15. Moral Foundations of Ethical Research 59
16. From Moral Principles to Ethics Codes 65
17. Putting Ethics Into Practice 74
18. Key Takeaways and Exercises 79
Chapter IV. Psychological Measurement
19. Understanding Psychological Measurement 83
20. Reliability and Validity of Measurement 92
21. Practical Strategies for Psychological Measurement 99
22. Key Takeaways and Exercises 105
Chapter V. Experimental Research
23. Experiment Basics 109
24. Experimental Design 117
25. Experimentation and Validity 125
26. Practical Considerations 130
27. Key Takeaways and Exercises 138
Chapter VI. Non-Experimental Research
28. Overview of Non-Experimental Research 143
29. Correlational Research 148
30. Complex Correlation 157
31. Qualitative Research 163
32. Observational Research 169
33. Key Takeaways and Exercises 179
Chapter VII. Survey Research
34. Overview of Survey Research 185
35. Constructing Surveys 188
36. Conducting Surveys 198
37. Key Takeaways and Exercises 204
Chapter VIII. Quasi-Experimental Research
38. One-Group Designs 209
39. Non-Equivalent Groups Designs 215
40. Key Takeaways and Exercises 219
Chapter IX. Factorial Designs
41. Setting Up a Factorial Experiment 223
42. Interpreting the Results of a Factorial Experiment 229
43. Key Takeaways and Exercises 238
Chapter X. Single-Subject Research
44. Overview of Single-Subject Research 241
45. Single-Subject Research Designs 244
46. The Single-Subject Versus Group “Debate” 254
47. Key Takeaways and Exercises 259
Chapter XI. Presenting Your Research
48. American Psychological Association (APA) Style 263
49. Writing a Research Report in American Psychological Association (APA) Style 272
50. Other Presentation Formats 287
51. Key Takeaways and Exercises 293
Chapter XII. Descriptive Statistics
52. Describing Single Variables 297
53. Describing Statistical Relationships 309
54. Expressing Your Results 321
55. Conducting Your Analyses 332
56. Key Takeaways and Exercises 337
Chapter XIII. Inferential Statistics
57. Understanding Null Hypothesis Testing 343
58. Some Basic Null Hypothesis Tests 350
59. Additional Considerations 366
60. From the “Replicability Crisis” to Open Science Practices 374
61. Key Takeaways and Exercises 382
This textbook represents a labor of love and a deep commitment to students. Each of us had previously worked on adapting, updating, and refining successive editions of this textbook since its initial publication. In coming together to produce this fourth edition collaboratively, we were able to build on our own expertise and classroom experience as well as thoughtful feedback from several peer reviewers.
We would like to thank the Rebus Community, especially Zoe Wake Hyde and Apurva Ashok, for guiding and supporting us through the process of peer review and for building an intellectually supportive and encouraging community of authors and open educators.
We are immensely grateful to our peer reviewers Judy Grissett (Georgia Southwestern State University), Amy Nusbaum (Washington State University), and one additional anonymous reviewer, who volunteered their time and energy to provide valuable suggestions and feedback that improved the quality and consistency of the 4th edition of this book.
Finally, we are grateful to Lana Radomsky for her assistance with formatting and compiling the glossary and references.
Rajiv, Carrie, and Dana (May 2019)
Acknowledgements | ix
Rajiv S. Jhangiani, Carrie Cuttler, & Dana C. Leighton
x | Acknowledgements
About this Book
This textbook is an adaptation of one written by [unnamed original author] and adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee. The original text is available here: http://www.saylor.org/site/textbooks/
The first Canadian edition (published in 2013) was authored by Rajiv S. Jhangiani (Kwantlen Polytechnic University) and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License. Revisions included the addition of a table of contents, changes to Chapter 3 (Research Ethics) to include a contemporary example of an ethical breach and to reflect Canadian ethical guidelines and privacy laws, additional information regarding online data collection in Chapter 9 (Survey Research), corrections of errors in the text and formulae, spelling changes from US to Canadian conventions, the addition of a cover page, and other necessary formatting adjustments.
The second Canadian edition (published in 2015) was co-authored by Rajiv S. Jhangiani (Kwantlen Polytechnic University) and I-Chant A. Chiang (Quest University Canada) and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Revisions included: (throughout) language revision, spelling & formatting, additional video links and website links, interactive visualizations, figures, tables, and examples; (Chapter 1) the Many Labs Replication Project; (Chapter 2) double-blind peer review, contemporary literature databases, how to read academic papers; (Chapter 3) Canadian ethics; (Chapter 4) laws, effects, theory; (Chapter 5) fuller description of the MMPI, removal of IAT, validity descriptions; (Chapter 6) validity & realism descriptions, Latin Square design; (Chapter 7) Mixed- design studies, qualitative-quantitative debate; (Chapter 8) 2 × 2 factorial exercise; (Chapter 9) Canadian Election Studies, order and open-ended questions; (Chapter 13) p-curve and BASP announcement about banning p-values; “replicability crisis” in psychology; (Glossary) added key terms.
The second U.S. edition (published in 2017) was authored by Dana C. Leighton (Southern Arkansas University) and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Revisions included reversion of spelling from Canadian English to U.S. English and the addition of a cover photo: “Great Wave off Kanagawa” after Katsushika Hokusai (葛飾北斎) is public domain.
The third U.S. edition (published in 2017) was authored by Carrie Cuttler (Washington State University) and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Revisions included general reorganization, language revision, spelling, formatting, additional video links, and examples throughout. More specifically, the overall model section was moved from Chapter 1 to Chapter 2, new sections were added to Chapter 1 on methods of knowing and goals of science, and a link on the replication crisis in psychology was added to Chapter 1. Chapter 2 was also reorganized by moving the section on reviewing the research literature to earlier in the chapter and taking sections from Chapter 4 (on theories and hypotheses), moving them to Chapter 2, and cutting the remainder of Chapter 4. Sections of Chapter 2 on correlation were also moved to Chapter 6. New sections on characteristics of good research questions, an overview of experimental vs. non-experimental research, a description of field vs. lab studies, and making conclusions were also added to Chapter 2. Chapter 3 was expanded by adding a definition
About this Book | xi
of anonymity, elaborating on the Belmont Report (the principles of respect for persons and beneficence were added), and adding a link to a clip dispelling the myth that vaccines cause autism. Sections from Chapter 4 (on defining theories and hypotheses) were moved to Chapter 2 and the remainder of the previous Chapter 4 (on phenomenon, theories, and hypotheses) was cut. Chapter 5 was reorganized by moving the sections on four types of validity, manipulation checks, and placebo effects to later in the chapter. Descriptions of single factor two-level designs, single factor multi-level designs, matched-groups designs, order effects, and random counterbalancing were added to Chapter 5 and the concept of statistical validity was expanded upon. Chapter 6 was also reorganized by moving sections describing correlation coefficients from Chapters 2 and 12 to Chapter 6. The section of the book on complex correlation was also moved to Chapter 6 and the section on quasi-experiments was moved from Chapter 6 to its own chapter (Chapter 8). The categories of non-experimental research described in Chapter 6 were change to cross- sectional, correlational, and observational research. Chapter 6 was further expanded to describe cross- sectional studies, partial correlation, simple regression, the use of regression to make predictions, case studies, participant observation, disguised and undisguised observation, and structured observation. The terms independent variable and dependent variable as used in the context of regression were changed to predictor variable and outcome/criterion variable respectively. A distinction between proportionate stratified sampling and disproportionate stratified sampling was added to Chapt
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