Chapter Review Guidelines Chapter review assignments help ensure that


Chapter Review Guidelines

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PSYC 005: Research Methods

Review Sheet: Chapter 6 – Non-Experimental Research

1. Describe the characteristics of non-experimental research. How can we tell the difference between experiment and non-experimental research?

2. When is non-experimental research used? Identify at least 3 situations when non-experimental research is useful.

3. In the spaces below, write a description and example of cross-sectional, longitudinal, and cross-sequential/sequential studies. Design your own studies, do not use examples from the book or the internet.





Cross-Sequential/ Sequential

4. What type of validity usually decreases when a variable is not manipulated in a study? Why does that validity decrease?

5. What type of validity usually increases when a variable is not manipulated in a study? Why does that validity increase?

6. Design a correlational study at least one nominal/categorical variable. Describe the research question. Describe the nominal/categorical variable and the levels. Describe the dependent variable.

7. Interpret, as best you can, the following Pearson’s r values.

Strength of Relation (weak, moderate, strong)

Direction of Relation (positive or negative)

r = .89

r = -.12

R = -.71

8. What is qualitative research? What is its purpose? Design a simple qualitative study and describe it.

9. Describe an example of a situation when you would want to use qualitative research instead of quantitative research. Explain why qualitative research is a good choice for the situation.

10. What are interviews? Describe various levels of structure that interviews may involve.

11. What are focus groups? Identify one limitation of information gathered through focus groups. Describe an example of a topic that would work well for focus groups. Which topics lend themselves best for focus groups?



PSYC 005: Research Methods

Review Sheet: Chapter 7 – Survey Research

1. Describe “two important characteristics” of survey research according to the textbook.

2. Who are respondents?

3. Is survey research usually experimental or non-experimental? Explain your answer.

4. Identify the 5 cognitive processes respondents use when they answer survey items.

5. Define item-order effect and provide an example of it that is not from the book.

6. Design two open-ended items on the topic of online learning.

7. Design two closed-ended items on the topic of online.

8. What is a Likert scale? Design two closed-ended questions using a Likert scale. Discuss the importance of balance on both sides of an item. (Take some time, too, to consider how to pronounce “Likert”…you might be surprised!)

9. Identify the meaning of the acronym BRUSO. (What does each letter represent?) Why is it important to consider each of these aspects of research.

10. Describe two things that should be included in the Introduction of a survey.

11. Differentiate between probability and non-probability sampling.

12. What is sampling bias? As best you can, explain how it impacts the outcome of a survey study.

13. Identify two survey tools for online survey administration that are mentioned in the textbook.


Research Methods in Psychology

Research Methods in Psychology

4th edition




Research Methods in Psychology by Rajiv S. Jhangiani, I-Chant A. Chiang, Carrie Cuttler, & Dana C. Leighton is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

This adaptation constitutes the fourth edition of this textbook, and builds upon the second Canadian edition by Rajiv S. Jhangiani (Kwantlen Polytechnic University) and I-Chant A. Chiang (Quest University Canada), the second American edition by Dana C. Leighton (Texas A&M University-Texarkana), and the third American edition by Carrie Cuttler (Washington State University) and feedback from several peer reviewers coordinated by the Rebus Community. This edition is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Acknowledgements ix

About this Book xi

About the Authors of the Current Edition xvi

Preface xviii

Chapter I. The Science of Psychology

1. Methods of Knowing 3

2. Understanding Science 6

3. Goals of Science 10

4. Science and Common Sense 12

5. Experimental and Clinical Psychologists 15

6. Key Takeaways and Exercises 19

Chapter II. Overview of the Scientific Method

7. A Model of Scientific Research in Psychology 25

8. Finding a Research Topic 28

9. Generating Good Research Questions 36

10. Developing a Hypothesis 40

11. Designing a Research Study 45

12. Analyzing the Data 49

13. Drawing Conclusions and Reporting the Results 52

14. Key Takeaways and Exercise 54

Chapter III. Research Ethics

15. Moral Foundations of Ethical Research 59

16. From Moral Principles to Ethics Codes 65

17. Putting Ethics Into Practice 74

18. Key Takeaways and Exercises 79

Chapter IV. Psychological Measurement

19. Understanding Psychological Measurement 83

20. Reliability and Validity of Measurement 92

21. Practical Strategies for Psychological Measurement 99

22. Key Takeaways and Exercises 105

Chapter V. Experimental Research

23. Experiment Basics 109

24. Experimental Design 117

25. Experimentation and Validity 125

26. Practical Considerations 130

27. Key Takeaways and Exercises 138

Chapter VI. Non-Experimental Research

28. Overview of Non-Experimental Research 143

29. Correlational Research 148

30. Complex Correlation 157

31. Qualitative Research 163

32. Observational Research 169

33. Key Takeaways and Exercises 179

Chapter VII. Survey Research

34. Overview of Survey Research 185

35. Constructing Surveys 188

36. Conducting Surveys 198

37. Key Takeaways and Exercises 204

Chapter VIII. Quasi-Experimental Research

38. One-Group Designs 209

39. Non-Equivalent Groups Designs 215

40. Key Takeaways and Exercises 219

Chapter IX. Factorial Designs

41. Setting Up a Factorial Experiment 223

42. Interpreting the Results of a Factorial Experiment 229

43. Key Takeaways and Exercises 238

Chapter X. Single-Subject Research

44. Overview of Single-Subject Research 241

45. Single-Subject Research Designs 244

46. The Single-Subject Versus Group “Debate” 254

47. Key Takeaways and Exercises 259

Chapter XI. Presenting Your Research

48. American Psychological Association (APA) Style 263

49. Writing a Research Report in American Psychological Association (APA) Style 272

50. Other Presentation Formats 287

51. Key Takeaways and Exercises 293

Chapter XII. Descriptive Statistics

52. Describing Single Variables 297

53. Describing Statistical Relationships 309

54. Expressing Your Results 321

55. Conducting Your Analyses 332

56. Key Takeaways and Exercises 337

Chapter XIII. Inferential Statistics

57. Understanding Null Hypothesis Testing 343

58. Some Basic Null Hypothesis Tests 350

59. Additional Considerations 366

60. From the “Replicability Crisis” to Open Science Practices 374

61. Key Takeaways and Exercises 382

Glossary 385

References 417


This textbook represents a labor of love and a deep commitment to students. Each of us had previously worked on adapting, updating, and refining successive editions of this textbook since its initial publication. In coming together to produce this fourth edition collaboratively, we were able to build on our own expertise and classroom experience as well as thoughtful feedback from several peer reviewers.

We would like to thank the Rebus Community, especially Zoe Wake Hyde and Apurva Ashok, for guiding and supporting us through the process of peer review and for building an intellectually supportive and encouraging community of authors and open educators.

We are immensely grateful to our peer reviewers Judy Grissett (Georgia Southwestern State University), Amy Nusbaum (Washington State University), and one additional anonymous reviewer, who volunteered their time and energy to provide valuable suggestions and feedback that improved the quality and consistency of the 4th edition of this book.

Finally, we are grateful to Lana Radomsky for her assistance with formatting and compiling the glossary and references.

Rajiv, Carrie, and Dana (May 2019)

Acknowledgements | ix

Rajiv S. Jhangiani, Carrie Cuttler, & Dana C. Leighton

x | Acknowledgements

About this Book

This textbook is an adaptation of one written by [unnamed original author] and adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee. The original text is available here:

The first Canadian edition (published in 2013) was authored by Rajiv S. Jhangiani (Kwantlen Polytechnic University) and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License. Revisions included the addition of a table of contents, changes to Chapter 3 (Research Ethics) to include a contemporary example of an ethical breach and to reflect Canadian ethical guidelines and privacy laws, additional information regarding online data collection in Chapter 9 (Survey Research), corrections of errors in the text and formulae, spelling changes from US to Canadian conventions, the addition of a cover page, and other necessary formatting adjustments.

The second Canadian edition (published in 2015) was co-authored by Rajiv S. Jhangiani (Kwantlen Polytechnic University) and I-Chant A. Chiang (Quest University Canada) and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Revisions included: (throughout) language revision, spelling & formatting, additional video links and website links, interactive visualizations, figures, tables, and examples; (Chapter 1) the Many Labs Replication Project; (Chapter 2) double-blind peer review, contemporary literature databases, how to read academic papers; (Chapter 3) Canadian ethics; (Chapter 4) laws, effects, theory; (Chapter 5) fuller description of the MMPI, removal of IAT, validity descriptions; (Chapter 6) validity & realism descriptions, Latin Square design; (Chapter 7) Mixed- design studies, qualitative-quantitative debate; (Chapter 8) 2 × 2 factorial exercise; (Chapter 9) Canadian Election Studies, order and open-ended questions; (Chapter 13) p-curve and BASP announcement about banning p-values; “replicability crisis” in psychology; (Glossary) added key terms.

The second U.S. edition (published in 2017) was authored by Dana C. Leighton (Southern Arkansas University) and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Revisions included reversion of spelling from Canadian English to U.S. English and the addition of a cover photo: “Great Wave off Kanagawa” after Katsushika Hokusai (葛飾北斎) is public domain.

The third U.S. edition (published in 2017) was authored by Carrie Cuttler (Washington State University) and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Revisions included general reorganization, language revision, spelling, formatting, additional video links, and examples throughout. More specifically, the overall model section was moved from Chapter 1 to Chapter 2, new sections were added to Chapter 1 on methods of knowing and goals of science, and a link on the replication crisis in psychology was added to Chapter 1. Chapter 2 was also reorganized by moving the section on reviewing the research literature to earlier in the chapter and taking sections from Chapter 4 (on theories and hypotheses), moving them to Chapter 2, and cutting the remainder of Chapter 4. Sections of Chapter 2 on correlation were also moved to Chapter 6. New sections on characteristics of good research questions, an overview of experimental vs. non-experimental research, a description of field vs. lab studies, and making conclusions were also added to Chapter 2. Chapter 3 was expanded by adding a definition

About this Book | xi

of anonymity, elaborating on the Belmont Report (the principles of respect for persons and beneficence were added), and adding a link to a clip dispelling the myth that vaccines cause autism. Sections from Chapter 4 (on defining theories and hypotheses) were moved to Chapter 2 and the remainder of the previous Chapter 4 (on phenomenon, theories, and hypotheses) was cut. Chapter 5 was reorganized by moving the sections on four types of validity, manipulation checks, and placebo effects to later in the chapter. Descriptions of single factor two-level designs, single factor multi-level designs, matched-groups designs, order effects, and random counterbalancing were added to Chapter 5 and the concept of statistical validity was expanded upon. Chapter 6 was also reorganized by moving sections describing correlation coefficients from Chapters 2 and 12 to Chapter 6. The section of the book on complex correlation was also moved to Chapter 6 and the section on quasi-experiments was moved from Chapter 6 to its own chapter (Chapter 8). The categories of non-experimental research described in Chapter 6 were change to cross- sectional, correlational, and observational research. Chapter 6 was further expanded to describe cross- sectional studies, partial correlation, simple regression, the use of regression to make predictions, case studies, participant observation, disguised and undisguised observation, and structured observation. The terms independent variable and dependent variable as used in the context of regression were changed to predictor variable and outcome/criterion variable respectively. A distinction between proportionate stratified sampling and disproportionate stratified sampling was added to Chapt Plagiarism Free Papers

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