CRITICAL ANALYSIS APPLICATION PAPER The Causes of Organized Crime Analysis JAY S.

CRITICAL ANALYSIS APPLICATION PAPER
The Causes of Organized Crime Analysis
JAY S. ALBANESE
There are many things I have to learn from the article on the causes of organized crime. One of the most interesting I came across in the report is the definition of some of the most fundamental topics of discussion in the current society regarding crime issues. For instance, the article describes organized crime as one most difficult term that have had many definitions from various authors (Durant 2020). Some of the standard definitions found in this article suggest a continuous enterprise of criminals that rationally profit from illegal or non-formal activities (Albanese 2000). The other definition that has become of serious attention in the article is the meaning of organized crime groups. The report defines an organized crime group as one that does not look so large to attain its status. According to these articles, the organized crime group includes two or more participants suffice; thus, they cannot engage or be part of the preexisting organized crime group. Another definition I have learned from this paper is the definition of Criminal opportunity. The other things learned from this article includes the models and the methods for examining the relationship between the organized crimes, opportunities and groups. I also understand that those in authority should enforce laws to ensure that many opportunities for crimes are eliminated.
I found various aspects interesting from this article, and they include the models and method used for establishing the relationship between organized crime groups and opportunities (Albanese 2000). The most exciting thing about the model is that it will be applied against various case studies of the organized crimes to assess its power. The three most essential elements of making predictions on the incidence of organized crimes include the criminal environment, the opportunity factors, and the access necessary for conducting the illegal activity. Another most exciting aspect of the article consists of how it formulates a structure for testing the models used for conduction the research on the relationship between the organized crime group, organized crimes and opportunities.
The author, in this case, introduces some particular terminologies like Organized crime groups, organized crimes and then criminal opportunity. In the current society, this term looks so unique when it comes to discussion on criminology (Albanese 2000). Most of the authors will discuss criminology using deliverables like the causes of crimes and how to eliminate crime in any community or a particular region. Therefore, I get to learn from this article, including the fact that crime opportunities create a significant possibility or increase crime cases.
It is not clear whether the author favors or against the article’s topic, “the causes of organized crime groups”. The author first defines the three terms: the crime opportunities, the organized crime groups, and the Organized crimes. The author also suggests that it is very important to understand and understand how the crimes occur and their circumstance. The author explains the topic is not clear whether they are supporting the case or not in favor.
The article on the causes of the organized crimes is handy to the study of criminology because it provides a wide range of information on how the organized crime carry out their operations based on the opportunities available. The options in these cases are referred to as crime opportunities. The other importance of this article to the study of criminology is that it provides a wide range of understanding on the various terms that so many people and authors in the society do not have an idea. The article analysis also help student to understand that there is an interlink between corruption and organized crimes (Sundstrom and Wyatt 2017).
Neuroimaging Studies of Aggressive and Violent Behavior
ANA L. BUFKIN and VICKIE R. LUTTRELL
The article on Neuroimaging of Violent and aggressive behaviour is a significant one in criminology discussion (Bufkin and Luttrell 2005). The article provides a wide range of information that we need to have much concertation and appreciation to the content as students. There have been several studies to determine the effects of interpersonal violence and its cause among individuals which also relates to this topic (Lamsma, Mackay and Fazel 2017). From this article, I learn a significant association between the decrease in the prefrontal events relative to the subcortical activities and the impulsive aggregation. We also understand that disfunction in whichever area of the brain may predispose to violence by disrupting the serotonergic activity. According to structural and functional neuroimaging, most individuals are predisposed to antisocial behaviors by increasing the subcortical activities and the drop-down in the prefrontal event (Bufkin and Luttrell 2005). The article’s main concepts are how to regulate emotions and theoretical links to impulsive violence and aggregation.
I found various aspects interesting after going through the article on neuroimaging of violent and aggressive behaviour. Some of the unique elements include discussing the topic like implication for criminal justice and criminology and the fact that the neural circuitry underlying the emotion regulation and its affiliated behaviors is more complex. The other most exciting thing in these articles is that the relative balance of activity between the subcortical structures and the prefrontal cortex is associated with impulsive violence and aggression.
The author of the neuroimaging studies of aggressive and violent behaviour has introduced several specialized terminologies. The terms include the prefrontal cortex, subcortical and neuroimaging (Bufkin and Luttrell 2005). The other languages include the amygdala, dysfunction, cross-fertilization, neuro-science and morphometrics. Most of these terminologies are not that common to individuals or the entire society. The term prefrontal cortex is the cerebral cortex that covers the front part of the frontal lobe. It is a brain region that has been implicated in planning the behaviour of the complex cognitive, the expression of personality, decision making and the moderation of the social behaviour.
It is clear and precise that the author of this article is discussing the topic, from using various issues to make deep illustration on the main topic like the implication of criminology and criminal justice, regulation of emotions and theoretical links to impulsive violence and aggregation. Furthermore, the article is very much crucial to the study of criminology. It is because it provides a critical analysis of the implication of criminal justice and criminology. From the article, students understand that the availability of the current structural and functional neuroimaging techniques, the researchers have started localizing brain areas that may be dysfunctional in offenders who are more violent and aggressive.
References
Albanese S. Jay 2000. “Do Criminals Organize Around Opportunities for Crime or Do Criminal Opportunities Create New Offenders?” The Causes of Organized Crime: 1-15.
Bufkin L. J and Vickie R Luttrell 2005. “NEUROIMAGING STUDIES OF AGGRESSIVE AND VIOLENT BEHAVIOR: Current Findings and Implications for Criminology and Criminal Justice”. Trauma Violence and Abuse 6(2): 176-191.
Durrant, R. 2020. “Evolutionary Psychology and Organized Crime”. The SAGE Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology: Applications of Evolutionary Psychology, 296.
Lamsma, J., Mackay, C., & Fazel, S. 2017. “Structural brain correlates of interpersonal violence: systematic review and voxel-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies”. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 267, 69-73.
Sundstrom, A., & Wyatt, T. 2017. “Corruption and Organized Crime in Conservation”. Conservation Criminology, 97-110.
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