Critiquing A Qualitative Research Article
Group 1: Critiquing A Qualitative Research Article
The lived experience of new graduate nurses working in an acute care setting.
Article we are critiquing:
Group 1: “The Lived Experience of New Graduate Nurses Working in an Acute Care Setting” (Qualitative Article).
Table 4.2 From Textbook: Guide To A Focused Critique of Evidence Quality In A Qualitative Research Report
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|Aspect of the Report||Critiquing Questions|
|Method (Research design and research tradition)||1. Is the identified research tradition (if any) congruent with the methods used to collect and analyze data?
● The identified research tradition was Descriptive Phenomenology. In a descriptive phenomenology study the researcher seeks to portray and depict “things” as people experience them. These “things” include hearing, seeing, believing, feeling, remembering, deciding, and evaluating. The research question was: What are the lived experiences of new graduate nurses in their first 12 months in the acute care clinical practice environment? The research tradition was congruent with the methods used to collect the data. The question that was asked seeked to examine the “things” the new nurses experience in their first months of working.
2. Was an adequate amount of time spent in the field or with study participants?
● The study was conducted over the first 12 months of the new nurses’ work in an acute care clinical practice environment. This is an adequate amount of time spent with the study participants as it seems like it is trying to capture the experience of “novice” nurses. According to Dr. Patricia Benner’s theory and book “From Novice To Expert”, the “novice” phase of a nurse takes place over the first year of working in a clinical setting. Benner, P. E. (1984).
3. Was there evidence of reflexivity in the design?
● According to Polit and Beck “the trustworthiness of the inquiry is enhanced if the report contains information about the researchers, including information about credentials. In addition, the report may need to make clear the personal connections the researchers had to the people, topic, or community under study.
● There was no evidence of reflexivity in the design as it made no connection to the researchers. The one of the researchers is an instructor at the Jersey College of Nursing in Tampa Florida. Throughout the research it only says that the participants are from a clinical setting in southwest Florida but it actually says which clinical setting it is and the connect of the researchers to that clinical setting.
|Sample and setting||1. Was the group or population of interest adequately described? Were the setting and sample described in sufficient detail?
● Yes, McCalla-Graham, & De Gagne, (2015) adequately describes the group included in the study, which inclusion criteria is nurses who are in practice in acute care clinical settings who have been employed and experienced in the area for 12 months. The exclusion criteria involved nurses who were licensed practical or vocational nurses, or those who were licensed via endorsement. McCalla-Graham, & De Gagne, (2015) describes the setting and sample, which included all participants who were located and employed in acute care environments within southwest Florida.
2. Was the best possible method of sampling used to enhance information richness?
● McCalla-Graham, & De Gagne, (2015) used purposeful sampling which entails deliberately choosing the types of participants who will best contribute to the study. The sampling is purposeful because McCalla-Graham, & De Gagne, (2015) simply selected people who experienced the phenomenon being investigated in the study. Purposeful sampling meant that the participants were the type of people who could best enhance the understanding of the phenomenon.
3. Was the sample size adequate? Was saturation achieved?
● Data saturation was achieved since McCalla-Graham, & De Gagne, (2015) provided interview questions which ensured that all the aspects of the relevant phenomenon were covered. The sample size was sufficient based on the type of study, descriptive phenomenology, which tends to use a small sample of participants, only 10 or fewer.
|Data collection||1. Were the methods of gathering data appropriate? Were data gathered through two or more methods to achieve triangulation?
● The methods of gathering data was appropriate in that they selected a sample that would provide the information needed in the study. This was achieved using exclusion criteria. Anonymity was also maintained and nursing educators/experts developed the interview protocols and guidelines. In-depth interviews were conducted in a qualitative manner where open-ended questions were asked. The interviews were also tape recorded to ensure that all of the information was captured for a thorough analysis of the data. Data was collected and interpreted in multiple ways. 11 interview questions were asked and these questions enabled sub-questions to be answered. The phenomenological method of data analysis was used and information was collected and processed with the use of two software systems (CAQDAS and NVivo10). After the data was analyzed by the researchers, subjects were able to analyze their results and provide feedback.
2. Did the researcher ask the right questions or make the right observations?
● Researchers were able to ask the right questions in that they broke down their questions into 3 categories. The questions focused on the knowledge, skills and environments new graduate news experienced as they transition from nursing school and working as a nurse. Researchers observed a general census in the responses.
3. Was there a sufficient amount of data? Were they of sufficient depth and richness?
● In this study, there were sufficient amount of data collected where the researchers observed a general census in the responses. The open ended general questions also enabled sub-questions.
|Procedures||1. Do data collection and recording procedures appear appropriate?
● Descriptive phenomenology data was collected for this qualitative research report and was conducted appropriately. Phenomenology data consists of in-depth interviews and other written forms. The data collected for new graduate nurses in acute care setting was done in such a way, that nurses in this study were all interviewed. The research study explained that it was studying nurses who had 12 months or less of experience prior to acute care.
● This form of recording was appropriate in this study because it allowed for an in-depth approach of why these graduate nurses felt that they would have benefited from more “worst case scenario” clinical rotations before entering the acute care field.
2. Were data collected in a manner that minimized bias? Were the people who collected data appropriately trained?
● The data collected was based off new graduate nurses in the acute care setting, in Southwest Florida. There was bias in this study since it was just based off one city in Florida. The study could have resulted in less bias if it included different cities. Also, all the nurses being interviewed, except one, all had a second career.
● The people who collected the data were appropriately trained. The approval of this study was conducted by the university’s institutional review board. The interviews were conducted privately for a time of 45-60 minutes each. The data was recorded and transferred to a computer-based program in order to provide appropriate analysis. The participants of the study were allowed to review the transcript and approve it.
|Enhancement of trustworthiness||1. Did the researchers use strategies to enhance the trustworthiness/integrity of the study, and were those strategies adequate?
● Integrity in a qualitative research study, the researcher must reflect and repeatedly check the validity of the data. In this case, the researcher reflected on the data provided by the graduate nurses and used their personal reflection. The nurses being allowed to review the data, makes the research study trustworthy.
2. Do the researchers’ clinical and methologic qualifications and experience enhance confidence in the findings and their interpretation?
● The researchers are both registered nurses with PhD level education, but they do not elaborate on their own reflection in the experience of working in an acute care setting. The researchers are aware that there is a gap between nursing school education and acute care bedside nursing. We don’t know if they were in that same situation post-graduation, however, their experience being nurses does enhance their confidence in their findings and interpretation.
|Results (Data analysis)||1. Was the data analysis strategy compatible with the research tradition and with the nature and type of data gathered?
● The identified research tradition was Descriptive Phenomenology which is meant to portray and depict the things people experience. The results were summarized according to the major topics of the interview: knowledge, skills, and environment related to working in an acute care setting as new graduate nurses. This is compatible with the research tradition because it captured key “things” that the new nurses experienced throughout their first 12 months of working.
2. Did the analysis yield an appropriate “product” (e.g., a theory, taxonomy, thematic pattern)?
● Yes, the analysis yield an appropriate “product”. The researchers study brought forth three themes:
1. Knowledge: The general consensus of the research participants indicated that nursing school provided basic knowledge for the neophyte nurses, but it did not actually prepare them to function effectively in their first 12 months in the acute care clinical learning setting.
2. Skills: Many of the participants expressed that they lacked practical skills to complete the assignment.
3. Environment: Several participants expressed that their transition from nursing school to the acute care clinical setting was problematic.
3. Did the analytic procedures suggest the possibility of biases?
● The analytic procedures did not suggest the possibility of biases. In the research it states that the written descriptions of the new graduate nurse experiences were broken down into “meaningful units derived through the identification of themes”. A software was used to facilitate the coding process. After all the data was coded it was brought back to the interviewees to so that they could read the transcriptions to validate the contents. “This process involved debriefings and discussions with study participants by providing them with the analyzed research data for a final validation step.” McCalla-Graham, & De Gagne, (2015)
|Findings||1. Were the findings effectively summarized, with good use of excerpts from the data and with strong supporting arguments?
● Findings provided in the discussion section are of high quality and well interpreted by the researchers. The findings are precise and all necessary information is given for the reader to fully understand the study. There are many previous studies included in the discussion section to relate the findings and prove them important in the aim to understanding good nursing care for patients in an ICU setting provided by the novice nurses.. The researchers have many interpretations that are well supported by other studies and some that contradict based on differing methods among studies.
2. Did the themes adequately capture the meaning of the data? Does it appear that the researcher satisfactorily conceptualized the themes or patterns in the data?
● The major 3 themes were well developed and described in the findings section and well related to the original research purpose of explaining the phenomena of high attrition among new graduate nurses in the acute care setting. The article goes into detail about the reasons for nurse’s concerns about bridging their knowledge gap with their previous education, the importance of practical skills in order to effectively function, and finally concern for nurses difficult transition from school to the acute care clinical setting to work as new graduate nurses.
3. Did the analysis yield an insightful, provocative, authentic, and meaningful picture of the phenomenon under investigation?
● The findings of the conducted analysis were relayed in very insightful, authentic and meaningful way. It captivated the attention of the reader and portrayed a well developed idea on the matter. Detailed description of the findings on researched phenomena revealed direct correlation between educational preparedness, amount of experience and performance by the novice nurses in the ICU settings.
|Summary assessment||1. Do the study findings appear to be trustworthy- do you have confidence in the truth values of the result?
● When analyzing the findings of the study, the truth values of the results is valid. McCalla-Graham, & De Gagne, (2015) offers an in depth analysis of the sample and the interview process offers great insight into the condition of nursing shortage in the United States.
2. Does the study contribute any meaningful evidence that can be used in nursing practice or that is useful to the nursing discipline?
● This study does contribute meaningful evidence, McCalla-Graham, & De Gagne, (2015) offers insight into what can be done to curb the attrition of nurses. They suggest that measures (from employment organizations) should be put into place to retain graduate nurses to decrease the issue of high turnover rates in acute care settings and that efforts should be made to assist in the transition from nursing school to the workforce to keep people in the profession. The findings of the research are transferable and have practical application.
Benner, P. E. (1984). From novice to expert: Excellence and power in clinical nursing practice.
Menlo Park, Calif.: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., Nursing Division.
McCalla-Graham, J. A., & De Gagne, J. C. (2015). The lived experience of new graduate nurses
working in an acute care setting. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 46(3), 122-128.
Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2018). Essentials of nursing research: Appraising evidence for
nursing practice (9th edition.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health /Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
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