Historical Health Care Trend Analysis

Historical Health Care Trend Analysis

Assessment 3 Instructions: Historical Health Care Trend Analysis

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  • Write a 2-3 page trend analysis paper to describe health care regulations and medical practice evolutionary changes for access, quality, and cost, including the significant milestone events for different time periods. Historical Health Care Trend Analysis

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Moana is a newly appointed quality reporting analyst for a Northeast Accountable Care Organization (ACO). Her director tells her that the U.S. health care system is going through a quality revolution. The drivers of this movement are years of proposed, failed, and enacted legislation; many regulatory agencies lobbying for change; and the myriad of quality initiatives implemented before and after the Affordable Care Act. Other influences in this trend are Medicare, Medicaid, employer groups, and the managed care markets’ drive to improve quality and reduce costs. The beneficiaries of these plans—patients—want transparency of their services in regard to quality, safety, and cost. Historical Health Care Trend Analysis

To achieve these desired health service outcomes, private and public health systems work in tandem to reduce the burden of disease and increase quality, while managing costs. They do this through programs such as Vaccines for Children (VFC) and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Healthy People (1990–2030), Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE), and many more. Moana’s director shares with her that all of these private–public health programs and initiatives, in addition to the significant advancements in medical education, research, and technologies, have led to one of the most highly regulated industries in the United States and the world today.

In this assessment, you will review the private and public health legislation, regulatory agencies, and quality initiatives that have catapulted the United States into the quality revolution that we are experiencing today. As this quality revolution continues, health care professionals can expect to see more innovations contributing to individual patient and population health quality initiatives, with many more regulations to come. 

Scenario

You are a health care educator for a large integrated accountable care organization (ACO). You are tasked to work with a group of hospital executives to identify milestone events for three eras, the 1800s, 1900s, and 2000s, and identify trends from those events that impacted the health care industry. The trend analysis will consist of three critical measures: access, quality, and costs. Milestone events and trends identified for these three measures over time should include legislation, regulatory agencies, and quality initiatives in the various time periods. The final paper will be used in an annual strategic planning session attended by the ACO and hospital executives to demonstrate how the quality movement has evolved into a quality revolution.

Instructions

Write a 2–3 page paper in which you explain and analyze health care regulations and medical practice evolutionary changes for access, quality, and cost, including the significant milestone events from different time periods.

Complete the following:

  1. Study the Health Care Quality Evolution Milestone Events Chart [DOCX]to review the key regulatory or quality initiative events relative to the 1800s, the 1900s, and the 2000s.
  2. The textbook is suggested as the most efficient resource for this assessment, or use at least two other resources from those provided with this assessment. You may also use resources you find on your own from the History of Health Care Researchtab in the Health Care Administration Undergraduate Library Research Guide to research for the Trend Analysis Table: Evolution of Access, Quality, and Cost in Health Care table in the appendix of the Historical Health Care Trend Analysis Template [DOCX].

    • You are required to reference a total of three scholarly sources in your paper.
    • Be sure to cite these references within the body of your paper correctly using APA style citations. Refer to Evidence and APAin the Capella Writing Center for help with using APA style.
  3. Complete the Trend Analysis Table: Evolution of Access, Quality, and Cost in Health Carein the appendix for the assessment template.

    • For each time period, select 2 milestone events or regulations from the Health Care Quality Evolution Milestone Events Chart [DOCX]that have affected each topic: access to health care, quality of health care, and cost of health care.
    • There should be a total of 18 milestone events or regulations in the completed table.
    • Include bullet points with notes that describe each event or regulation and how it impacted access, quality, or cost.
  4. Write an introduction for the paper using the Historical Health Care Trend Analysis Template [DOCX].

    • Provide a brief explanation of the purpose of this historical trend analysis and how it might be used in your work as a health administrator (1 paragraph).
    • Where appropriate, reference significant health care milestones, regulations, and measures for access, quality, and cost.
    • Refer to the Writing Supportpage on Campus for resources to help you as you write and revise your paper.
  5. Use the Trend Analysis Table: Evolution of Access, Quality, and Cost in Health Care table to write the body of your paper.

    • Complete the Trends and Regulationssection in the assessment template.

      • Provide a brief description of the key measures of health care services, which are access, quality, and cost (1–2 paragraphs).
      • In the Health Care Accesssubsection, explain the significant trends and regulatory milestones associated with access to health care over the recent eras (1–2 paragraphs).

        • What U.S. legislation, regulatory agencies, and quality initiatives from the 1800s, 1900s, and 2000s have influenced access to health care services in the United States?
        • What does your milestone trend analysis reveal for access to care?
        • Include citations and references to specific regulations, events, or agencies.
      • In the Health Care Qualitysubsection, explain the significant trends and regulatory milestones associated with health care quality over the recent eras (1–2 paragraphs).

        • What U.S. legislation, regulatory agencies, and quality initiatives from the 1800s, 1900s, and 2000s have influenced care quality in health care services in the United States?
        • What does your trend analysis reveal for care quality?
        • Include citations and references to specific regulations, events, or agencies.
      • In the Health Care Costsubsection, explain the significant trends and regulatory milestones associated with access to health care costs over the recent eras (1–2 paragraphs).

        • What U.S. legislation, regulatory agencies, and quality initiatives from the 1800s, 1900s, and 2000s have affected health care costs for medical services?
        • What does your trend analysis reveal for medical service costs?
        • Include citations and references to specific regulations, events, or agencies.
      • Complete the Trend Analysissection of the assessment template (1–2 paragraphs).

        • Analyze the trends and regulations in health care access, quality, and cost to draw conclusions about the evolution of health care regulations and practice throughout the recent eras.
        • Describe professional experiences or examples to illustrate the trends.
        • Include citations and references to specific regulations, events, or agencies.
  1. Write the conclusion for the paper (1 paragraph).

    • Briefly restate the trends revealed for health care access, quality, and cost.
    • Draw a conclusion about how the milestones, regulations, and changes have improved, been neutral, or inhibited progress of the U.S. health care system.
    • Summarize clear and concise conclusions of your trend analysis.

Additional Requirements

  • Your paper should be 2–3 pages, in addition to the title page, appendix, and references page.
  • Double space your paper, and use Times New Roman, 12-point font, as indicated in the assessment template.
  • Use a minimum of three resources. This may include your textbook and other course resources.
  • Complete all parts of the assessment template, using the headings provided in the template.
  • Support all points with credible evidence, in the form of APA citations.
  • Include a references page in APA format with appropriate citations.
  • Complete the Trend Analysis Table: Evolution of Access, Quality, and Cost in Health Carein the appendix of the assessment template.

Competencies Measured

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and scoring guide criteria:

  • Competency 1: Analyze trends in the U.S. health care system from a historical perspective.

    • Identify health care legislative, regulatory agency, and quality initiative events in a trend analysis table of different eras.
  • Competency 2: Explain the development of health regulation and the evolution of medical practice.

    • Explain the significant trends and regulatory milestones associated with access to health care over the recent eras.
    • Explain the significant trends and regulatory milestones associated with health care quality over the recent eras.
    • Explain the significant trends and regulatory milestones associated with health care costs over the recent eras.
    • Analyze the trends and regulations in health care access, quality, and cost to draw conclusions about the evolution of health care regulations and practice throughout the recent eras.
  • Competency 4: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and respectful of the diversity, dignity, and integrity of others.

    • Appropriately addresses all components of the assessment prompt, using the assessment description to structure text.
    • Apply APA formatting to in-text citations and references.

 

Historical Health Care Trend Analysis Scoring Guide

CRITERIA NON-PERFORMANCE BASIC PROFICIENT DISTINGUISHED
Identify health care legislative, regulatory agency, and quality initiative events in a trend analysis table of different eras. Does not identify health care legislative, regulatory agency, and quality initiative events in a trend analysis table of different eras. Identifies some health care legislative, regulatory agency, and quality initiative events in a trend analysis table of different eras but does not include the most significant events for each topic. Identifies health care legislative, regulatory agency, and quality initiative events in a trend analysis table of different eras. Describes the most significant health care legislative, regulatory agency, and quality initiative events in a trend analysis table of different eras, and all of the events per topic are related or follow a consistent theme.
Explain the significant trends and regulatory milestones associated with access to health care over the recent eras. Does not explain the significant trends and regulatory milestones associated with access to health care over the recent eras. Explains part of a trend or regulatory milestone associated with access to health care or does not select the most significant events that relate to the topic consistently across the eras. Explains the significant trends and regulatory milestones associated with access to health care over the recent eras. Explains the most significant trends accurately and in context using examples of the access to health care regulatory milestones from the appropriate time frames.
Explain the significant trends and regulatory milestones associated with health care quality over the recent eras. Does not explain the trends and regulatory milestones associated with health care quality over the recent eras. Explains part of a trend or regulatory milestone associated with health care quality or does not select the most significant events that relate to the topic consistently across the eras. Explains the significant trends and regulatory milestones associated with health care quality over the recent eras. Explains the most significant trends accurately and in context using examples of the health care quality regulatory milestones from the appropriate time frames.
Explain the significant trends and regulatory milestones associated with health care costs over the recent eras. Does not explain the trends and regulatory milestones associated with health care costs over the recent eras. Explains part of a trend or regulatory milestone associated with health care costs or does not select the most significant events that relate to the topic consistently across the eras. Explains the significant trends and regulatory milestones associated with health care costs over the recent eras. Explains the most significant trends accurately and in context using examples of the health care quality regulatory milestones from the appropriate time frames.
Analyze the trends and regulations in health care access, quality, and cost to draw conclusions about the evolution of health care regulations and practice throughout the recent eras. Does not analyze the trends and regulations in health care access, quality, and cost to draw conclusions about the evolution of health care regulations and practice throughout the recent eras. Describes some trends and regulations in health care access, quality, and cost and draws at least one conclusion about the evolution of health care regulations and/or practice throughout the recent eras, but does not provide a thorough analysis of both regulations and practice. Analyzes the trends and regulations in health care access, quality, and cost to draw conclusions about the evolution of health care regulations and practice throughout the recent eras. Analyzes the trends and regulations in health care access, quality, and cost to draw professional conclusions about the evolution of health care regulations and practice throughout the recent eras, supported by examples and references to the most appropriate milestones and professional literature.
Appropriately addresses all components of the assessment prompt, using the assessment description to structure text. Does not address the assessment prompt. Writing lacks a clear purpose or message that inhibits effective communication with the intended audience. Appropriately addresses all components of the assessment prompt, using the assessment description to structure text. Appropriately addresses all components of the assessment prompt and uses the prompt to guide organization. Additionally, shares information relevant to all assessment components at a level that communicates clear meaning.
Apply APA formatting to in-text citations and references. Does not apply APA formatting to in-text citations and references. Applies APA formatting to in-text citations and references incorrectly and/or inconsistently, detracting noticeably from good scholarship. Applies APA formatting to in-text citations and references. Exhibits strict and nearly flawless adherence to APA formatting of in-text citations and references.

 

Long-Term Care and Mental Health Services

  • Young, K. M., & Kroth, P. J. (2018). Sultz & Young’s health care USA: Understanding its organization and delivery(9th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning. Available in the courseroom via the VitalSource Bookshelf link.

    • Chapter 9, “Long-Term Care,” pages 245–274.
    • Chapter 10, “Behavioral Health Services,” pages 277–299.
  • Ernst, W. (2018). The role of work in psychiatry: Historical reflections.Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 60(6), S248–S252.

    • This article outlines the history of psychiatry from 1751 to today and the changes within medical, social, and political contexts.
  • Nadash, P. (2020). The evolution of long-term care programs comment on “Financing long-term care: Lessons from Japan.”International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 9(1), 42–44.

    • This article reflects on lessons learned regarding social insurance, caregivers, and the financing of long-term care from Japan and Germany.
  • Kaiser Family Foundation. (2015, August 31). Long-term care in the United States: A timeline.https://www.kff.org/medicaid/timeline/long-term-care-in-the-united-states-a-timeline/

    • This website shows a timeline of 1935–2015 and the evolution, milestones, legislation, and funding of long-term care.
  • National Institute of Mental Health. (2021). Important events in NIMH history.The NIH Almanac. https://www.nih.gov/about-nih/what-we-do/nih-almanac/national-institute-mental-health-nimh#events

    • This website shows a timeline of 1946–2015 and the evolution, milestones, and advancements in mental health.

 

Health Care Quality

  • Young, K. M., & Kroth, P. J. (2018). Sultz & Young’s health care USA: Understanding its organization and delivery(9th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning. Available in the courseroom via the VitalSource Bookshelf link.

    • Chapter 11, “Public Health and the Role of Government in Health Care,” pages 301–349.
    • Chapter 13, “Future of Health Care,” pages 371–390.
  • Health Care Quality Evolution Milestone Events Chart [DOCX].

    • Study the events on this timeline to determine trends in access, quality, and cost of health care throughout history. You will use the milestones on this timeline to research and write your assessment.
  • Chan, D. C., Huynh, J., & Studdert, D. M. (2019). Accuracy of valuations of surgical procedures in the Medicare fee schedule.The New England Journal of Medicine, 380(16), 1546–1554.

    • This article explains resource-based relative value scale based on relative value units (RVUs). It outlines physician work RVUs, practice expense RVUs, and malpractice RVUs and discusses room for improvements in this system.
  • Devkaran, S., Patrick N O’Farrell, Ellahham, S., & Arcangel, R. (2019). Impact of repeated hospital accreditation surveys on quality and reliability, an 8-year interrupted time series analysis.BMJ Open, 9(2).

    • This is an eight-year accreditation study of hospitals that demonstrate improved quality measure outcomes.
  • Speer, M., McCullough, J. M., Fielding, J. E., Faustino, E., & Teutsch, S. M. (2020). Excess medical care spending: The categories, magnitude, and opportunity costs of wasteful spending in the United States.American Journal of Public Health, 110(12), 1743–1748.

    • This resource contains several reputable landmark reports of hundreds of billions of dollars wasted in the United States on medical care every year with no improvements of health outcomes. It discusses six categories: clinical inefficiencies, missed prevention opportunities, overuse, administrative waste, excessive prices, and fraud and abuse.
  • (n.d.). HEDIS and performance measurement.https://www.ncqa.org/hedis/

    • This website shows NCQA accreditation for managed care organizations (MCOs) and HEDIS quality reporting to demonstrate the MCO population health status.
  • The Joint Commission. (n.d.). Accreditation basics for beginners.https://www.jointcommission.org/accreditation-and-certification/health-care-settings/home-care/home-care-on-demand-webinars/home-care-accreditation-basics-for-beginners/

    • This website and video presentation show how accreditation is performed from beginning to end, including process, resources, and costs.

 

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