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When researching cognitive psychology, which of the following are used:
Question 1 options:
Normal brains
Abnormal brains
Computers
All of the above
Question 2 (2 points)
Saved
Wundt’s Leipzig school believed consciousness to be the result of what type of processing?
Question 2 options:
Top-down
Bottom-up
Circular
Conceptually-driven
Question 3 (2 points)
Saved
Early behaviorists emphasized the importance of
Question 3 options:
Consciousness
Thinking
Objectivity
Physics
Question 4 (2 points)
The information about a match or mismatch between a desired end and an existing state is called
Question 4 options:
Goal-directed achievement
Matching hypothesis
Cognitive titration
Feedback
Question 5 (2 points)
Saved
Turing believed that
Question 5 options:
Computers could think
Computers were smarter than humans
Computers were tools that input, stored, and manipulated information
Computers should technically be considered unintelligent
Question 6 (2 points)
Saved
What is NOT an assumption commonly made by the cognitive approach to psychology?
Question 6 options:
Answers to basic empirical questions can be given in terms of information processing models
Cognitive capacities can be regarded as relatively isolated
Cognition can only be understood with reference to stimuli and response
Cognitive psychology tends to focus on the individual rather than on cultural or societal factors.
Question 7 (2 points)
You are at a holiday party with many family and friends. Even though there are many conversations, and it is noisy all around you, you are able to focus on the discussion with your interlocutor. This is due to the
Question 7 options:
Face-name mnemonic
Auditory reflex
Cocktail party effect
Cochlear cilia
Question 8 (2 points)
Studies wherein subjects listen to different stimuli in each ear in order to determine how well one could attend to and remember the stimuli in each ear is called ________.
Question 8 options:
Echoic memory
Broadbent task
Parallel processing
Dichotic listening
Question 9 (2 points)
_____ occurs in time, whereas _____ occurs in space
Question 9 options:
Audition; Vision
Vision; Audition
Cognition; Perception
Perception; Cognition
Question 10 (2 points)
Perceiving something without being aware of it can be tested using ______; perceiving something without attending to it can be tested using _____.
Question 10 options:
Masking research; dichotic listening research
Dichotic listening research; masking research
Semantic research; episodic research
Episodic research; semantic research
Question 11 (2 points)
A patient only eats food from the right half of a plate. What can you infer from this?
Question 11 options:
There has been damage to the frontal lobe of the brain
There has been damage to the occipital lobe of the brain
There has been damage to the left lobe of the brain
There has been damage to the right lobe of the brain
Question 12 (2 points)
Deutsch and Deutsch (1963) claim that:
Question 12 options:
Messages receive greater amounts of processing if they are attended to
All messages receive the same amount of processing whether they are attended to or not
Attended information must receive at least sufficient processing to activate relevant semantic memories
Only one message can be attended to at a time
Question 13 (2 points)
People analyze information from their senses using
Question 13 options:
Perception
Stimuli
Attention
Sensation
Question 14 (2 points)
When you see an X on a piece of paper, you perceive this as two strait lines crossing in the middle. This is what Gestalt psychologists call
Question 14 options:
Law of impressions
Law of proximity
Law of good continuation
Law of closure
Question 15 (2 points)
When we say that an apple can be eaten, a bowl can hold things, and a box can contain things, this is what is referred to as
Question 15 options:
Characteristics
Affordances
Resonances
Primitives
Question 16 (2 points)
The ventral stream in visual processing . . .
Question 16 options:
Projects to regions of the brain that appear to be involved in pattern discrimination and object recognition
Projects to regions of the brain that appear to be involved in the analysis of information involved in the position and movement of objects
Projects to parts of the brain primarily involved in face recognition
Projects to parts of the brain involved in line and edge detection
Question 17 (2 points)
The constructivist approach describes perception as
Question 17 options:
Top-down
Bottom-up
Data-driven
Detail-oriented
Question 18 (2 points)
Which of the following makes within-category distinctions?
Question 18 options:
Objects
Faces
Emotions
Templates
Question 19 (2 points)
People are ______ capable of identifying familiar than unfamiliar faces when there is a change in pose or hairstyle.
Question 19 options:
Equally
More
Less
Research has been inconclusive
Question 20 (2 points)
What type of errors were most commonly made in Young et al’s (1985) study of everyday errors in face recognition?
Question 20 options:
Difficulty retrieving full details of a person
Person unrecognized
Decision problems
Person misidentification
Question 21 (2 points)
Research indicates that person _____ information is retrieved before person ______ information.
Question 21 options:
Identity; name
Name; identity
Sequential; parallel
Parallel; sequential
Question 22 (2 points)
Identifying a person, and identifying an emotional expression, use what kind of routes?
Question 22 options:
Dorsal routes
Ventral routes
Separate routes
Overlapping routes
Question 23 (2 points)
Recognizing someone without being aware of recognizing them is called
Question 23 options:
Covert recognition
Autonomic recognition
Unconscious recognition
Repressed recognition
Question 24 (2 points)
Perceptually-oriented processing is more likely with ____, whereas semantic processing is more likely with _____.
Question 24 options:
Faces; objects
Objects; faces
Words; sentences
Sentences; words
Question 25 (2 points)
Let’s say that you learn about many types of bias in your Cognitive Psychology class. One bias in particular, the hindsight bias, really resonates with you because you recognize it in yourself. You find that, when tested on all of the biases, you remember more about the hindsight bias than the other types of bias. This is due to the
Question 25 options:
Ego involvement effect
Self-bias effect
Own-bias effect
Self-reference effect
Question 26 (2 points)
Studies of HM revealed the importance of the hippocampus in . . .
Question 26 options:
Forming new memories
Remembering old memories
Personality development
Balance
Question 27 (2 points)
Which of the following is considered to be part of declarative memory?
Question 27 options:
Priming
Facts
Classical conditioning
Procedural abilities
Question 28 (2 points)
When any memory is initially formed, it must first be encoded in
Question 28 options:
Emotional memory
Procedural memory
Episodic memory
Semantic memory
Question 29 (2 points)
Which two theories of memory are based on the importance of the relationship between encoding and retrieval?
Question 29 options:
Transfer appropriate processing and encoding specificity
Threshold process and relative distinctiveness
Dual process and familiarity-based theory
Single process signal detection theory and dual process signal detection theory
Question 30 (2 points)
When unconscious memory, or memory without awareness, is being examined, what types of tests are used?
Question 30 options:
Intentional memory tests
Exceptional memory tests
Explicit memory tests
Implicit memory tests
Question 31 (2 points)
We process and manipulate information in what type of memory?
Question 31 options:
Long term memory
Episodic memory
Working memory
Procedural memory
Question 32 (2 points)
Which of the following are synonymous?
Question 32 options:
Short term memory and working memory
Short term memory and long-term memory
Working memory and long-term memory
None of the above
Question 33 (2 points)
Think about your childhood bedroom. Picture where the bed, the windows, and the furniture were.  For this task, you are primarily using your
Question 33 options:
Phonological loop
Visuo-spatial sketchpad
Central executive
Occipital lobe
Question 34 (2 points)
[The] _____ tends to develop earlier in life than [the] ______.
Question 34 options:
Visuo-spatial sketchpad; phonological loop
Phonological loop; visuo-spatial sketchpad
Episodic memory; semantic memory
Semantic memory; episodic memory
Question 35 (2 points)
When you are intending to drive to a friend’s house, but end up at the grocery store instead because you were distracted by weather conditions, this is due to a failure of [the]
Question 35 options:
Working memory
Procedural memory
Supervisory Attentional System
Central workspace
Question 36 (2 points)
Which of the following memorization tasks is most predictive of being able to learn foreign language vocabulary?
Question 36 options:
Word-word pairs (two real words paired together)
Word-nonword pairs (a real word paired with a nonword)
Both are equally predictive
Neither are predictive since different processes are used
Question 37 (2 points)
If you wanted to figure out what steps a person goes through when solving a problem, or what the person’s thought process was, you would employ
Question 37 options:
Protocol analysis
Verbal analysis
Cognitive analysis
Freudian analysis
Question 38 (2 points)
If you think that a hammer can only be used to pound nails, and cannot conceive of other ways it can be used, you are illustrating the concept of
Question 38 options:
Insight
Internal representation
External representation
Functional fixity
Question 39 (2 points)
When using analogies to solve problems without any additional hints or clues, subjects do better when there are
Question 39 options:
Surface similarities
Structural similarities
Blatant similarities
Verbal similarities
Question 40 (2 points)
When solving a problem, experts in a subject matter, as compared to novices, tend to
Question 40 options:
Work backward, beginning with the end goal and working backward to the information given
Work forward, beginning with the information given and using that to work toward the end goal
Work backward and forward simultaneously to discover a solution
Use the method of insight
Question 41 (2 points)
_____ theories of decision-making define the ideal decision whereas _____ theories of decision-making characterize how decisions are actually made.
Question 41 options:
Normative; descriptive
Descriptive; normative
Problem-solving; judgment
Judgment; problem-solving
Question 42 (2 points)
People may experience loss aversion in part due to the
Question 42 options:
Gambling effect
Possession effect
Probability effect
Endowment effect
Question 43 (2 points)
In making judgments, once a hypothesis is formed based on early information, later conflicting information tends to be disregarded. This is called the
Question 43 options:
Disconfirmation effect
Inertia effect
Conservatism effect
Edwards effect
Question 44 (2 points)
Linda is afraid to fly because she hears about planes going down “all the time.” Linda is suffering from the
Question 44 options:
Representativeness heuristic
Availability heuristic
Anchoring and adjustment heuristic
Framing heuristic
Question 45 (2 points)
Bill is at a conference for accountants at a luxury resort in Las Vegas. The hotel is full of accountants, but there are other guests vacationing there too. Bill rides the elevator with a muscular man in workout clothes. He comments, “You aren’t here for the accountant’s conference, are you?!” The man replies, “Yes I am. I am just going for a workout after my last seminar.”  What fallacy did Bill fall prey to?
Question 45 options:
Representativeness heuristic
Availability heuristic
Anchoring and adjustment heuristic
Framing heuristic
Question 46 (2 points)
What type of reasoning do we use when we come to a conclusion based on things we assume, or things we believe?
Question 46 options:
Parallel reasoning
Logical reasoning
Deductive reasoning
Inductive reasoning
Question 47 (2 points)
Is the following syllogism true or false–
All A are B
All B are C
Therefore, All C are A
Question 47 options:
True
False
Impossible to determine
Question 48 (2 points)
What is the most common form of reasoning?
Question 48 options:
Parallel reasoning
Logical reasoning
Deductive reasoning
Inductive reasoning
Question 49 (2 points)
A professional baseball pitcher wears his “lucky socks” for every game, believing them to be a factor in his success. This illustrates a(n)
Question 49 options:
Illusory correlation
Transitory correlation
Psychological correlation
Low IQ
Question 50 (2 points)
An “a-ha” moment, or gaining sudden insight into a problem, is a form of
Question 50 options:
Parallel reasoning
Logical reasoning
Deductive reasoning
Inductive reasoning

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