Part A: You need to write “Quantitative method”, “Questionnaire” and “Online questionnaire” parts of a methodology essay and use the references that I list below.
– social research method [book], author name: A Bryman,
– research methods for business student [book]
– Research Methods in Human Resource Management [book], author name: Valerie Anderson, Dr
– research methods for business student [book]
– Management research [book], author name: Easterby-Smith
-you could choose an authoritative book
– another authoritative book
4. find one citation related to “sampling” from research methods for business student [book]
Here is the link for research methods for business students [book]: https://toc.library.ethz.ch/objects/pdf_ead50/4/E57_7072090_TB-Index_005013522.pdf
Word limit: 400
Please follow the format of the example.
“The terms quantitative and qualitative are used widely in business and
management research to differentiate both data collection techniques and data analysis procedures. One way of distinguishing between the two is the focus on numeric (numbers) or non-numeric (words) data.” (Saunders et al. 2007: 145) For data collection, quantitative research mainly uses questionnaire survey while qualitative research mainly uses interview (Saunders et al., 2007). Anderson (2009) mentioned that quantitative data is able to be counted or quantified, while qualitative data is shown by words. Quantitative research aims at testing theories, regarding the relationship between relevant theories and empirical research as a deductive process (Bryman, 2008). According to research objectives, this research takes quantitative methods.
The questionnaire survey is one of the most widely used quantitative methods to investigate individuals’ opinions in a large scale (Easterby-Smith et al. 2008). It is more suitable for investigating participants’ opinions by standardized questions rather than open-end questions. Saunders et al. (2007) held the view that it is convenient for researchers to explain the relationship between variables through questionnaires. Therefore, this research uses questionnaires to assess the impact of transformational leadership on the knowledge workers’ turnover in China.
3. Online questionnaire
The author studies in the University of Manchester while this research aims at investigating knowledge workers’ opinions in the context of China. Thus, the primary data is collected by online questionnaire. Online questionnaire method has been recognized as a convenient and effective way to collect data. Couper (2005 cited in Mertens 2010:203) described the advantages of online surveys as “Web-based surveys offer advantages because of their ability to accommodate such strategies as branching, editing, tailoring, and randomization, as well as avoiding interviewer effects and reducing costs.” Besides, “web-based surveys have been used successfully to investigate several sensitive topics and to engage communities that might wish to maintain confidentiality about their identities.’ (Mertens 2010:203 cited in Wang
Part B: You need to revise these two parts by using this format. You also need to add other authoritative references. Use at least 4 references for each theory.
– Explain what the theory is
– Explain how this Motivation theory related to job satisfaction
Schaffer’s Need Fulfillment Theory of Job Satisfaction
In his study, Schaffer observed that employees possessed a variety of needs and want or even desires of their job that played a significant role in determining whether they found satisfaction in their jobs or not (Fatima et al. 2017). Schaffer noted that employee job satisfaction solely depended on whether their job could adequately and sufficiently satisfy their job needs (Soyoung and Sungchan, 2017). The more a job met and satisfied the unique needs of the employees, the more satisfaction the employees found in their jobs. Consequently, the more satisfied the employees were, the better they performed at their jobs and the more committed they were to their jobs. In contrast, the less the job met and satisfied the employee needs, the more dissatisfied the employee became (Fatima et al. 2017). Eventually, dissatisfied employees were reported to have little to no morale in performing their jobs let alone excellently carrying out their duties. And dissatisfied employees performed poorly which consequently reflected in the organization’s overall operational and financial performances (Soyoung and Sungchan, 2017). Thus, Schaffer advised that for organizations to optimize their performance, understanding and strategically meeting and satisfying employee job satisfaction needs is critical (Gopinath 2020; More and Padmanabhan, 2017).
Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory
In his theory, Herzberg argues that to optimize employee job satisfaction, organizations must identify which one of two factors to adjust to optimize employee motivation and consequently achieve optimal employee job satisfaction (More and Padmanabhan, 2017). The two factors that Herzberg’s reveals play a crucial role in impacting employee motivation and job satisfaction are motivators and hygiene factors. According to Herzberg, when organizations identify motivators and implement more motivators such as recognition, rewards and appreciation, they ensure that employees enjoy job satisfaction. Herzberg also argues that the lack of or the absence of hygiene factors such as safety protocol, competitive salaries and benefits and job security within an organization may counter any efforts to optimize employee job satisfaction. Thus, the theory informs the organization on how to strategically reconcile motivators to hygiene factors to ensure optimal job satisfaction and consequently peak employee performance (More and Padmanabhan, 2017).
Word limit: 600
Reference that I used:
Fatima, T., Naz, A., Chughtai, S., & Khawaja, K. F. (2017) ‘Workplace spirituality and job satisfaction: Moderating role of intrinsic and extrinsic values’, Paradigms, 11(1): 58.
Gopinath, R. (2020) ‘Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction on the Effect of Self-Actualization to Organisational Commitment and Job Involvement’, Solid State Technology, 63(6): 16500-16511.
More, B., & Padmanabhan, H. K. (2017) ‘A comparative study on employees job satisfaction level using Herzberg two factor and Maslow’s need theory with reference to manufacturing industry’, International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science, 1(1): 33-38
Soyoung, P. A. R. K., & Sungchan, K. I. M. (2017) ‘The linkage between work unit performance perceptions of US federal employees and their job satisfaction: An expectancy theory’, Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences, 13(52): 77-93
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