WEEK 3 DISCUSSION ONE AND TWO RESPONSES DISCUSSION ONE CLASSMATE SAIDY’S POST

WEEK 3 DISCUSSION ONE AND TWO RESPONSES
DISCUSSION ONE
CLASSMATE SAIDY’S POST
Creating a Police Discretion Policy
The first guideline I would use for police officers is to provide more training when in difficult situations. Policemen believed they were entitled to punish wrongdoers themselves, and on their patrols, they were expected to be able to physically dominate the streets without resorting to arrest (Banks, C. 2016). To avoid these situations from occurring and having police take it into their own hands, I would offer training that includes moral ethics and also proper force techniques to be used when needed. Another guideline would be is being honest, lying against anyone should not be allowed from officers when it can affect people and their freedom. Lastly, treating citizens with morality, dignity, and respect. When hiring officers it should be ensured that officers have these qualities and if suspicion arises there should be further investigation on this individual before hiring. 
Difficulty of Writing Policy:
If officers were free to choose their style of policing, this would enable them to act to their desires. A need for officers to be trained properly would be needed to exercise their considerable discretionary power. This would also give officers temptation to “slippery slopes” where minor acts of corruption would lead to major acts, unless internal police controls and accountability sanctioned those minor acts.
Potential Negative Consequences:
Some negative consequences that can be seen besides putting in different rules is situations may not always go as trained or directed. It is what is seen now, no matter the training given and technology used to help certain situations things can always go another route. No one really knows how things will turn out because every situation is different, it all depends on a person’s morals and how they want to handle the situation. Police ethics is important in the functions and duties of the police, because they affect life, liberty, and property, and as guardians of the interests of the public, police must maintain high standards of integrity (Banks, C. 2016).
Reference:
Banks, C. (2016). Criminal justice ethics: Theory and practice (4th ed.). Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu
CLASSMATE JOSHUA’S POST
Guidelines in creating a police discretion policy
Police discretion can be described as a decision-making process that helps guide the decisions made by officers while acting legally in the line of duty. Different situations require different responses from law enforcement officials and during the course of their shift officers will need to use discretion as they work to help address different issues and crimes they encounter. Not all officers use their discretionary authority in the legal context and abuse this power, though many strive to work within the constraints of what may be considered acceptable to others within the organization. Examples of abuse of discretionary power are fabricating evidence or statements, the poor handling of evidence, or the solicitation of bribes. In general, officers need to use discretion on a regular basis when determining when to use deadly force, when to make an arrest, even whether a traffic ticket should be issued.  One guideline I would recommend implementing if it does not already exist in the implementation of pre-described rules of engagement when reacting with deadly force. The military has these kinds of rules placed over their personnel and I believe they apply to anyone with the authority to carry a weapon. These rules of engagement include only using deadly force as a last resort when all other lesser methods have failed or cannot be reasonably applied. Such as in self-defense, to prevent a serious offense against others, or in the apprehension of a suspect when the first two examples are believed to have occurred. For self-defense, the officer must reasonably believe that his or other officers’ lives were in danger if deadly force was not applied. For the use of deadly force in the prevention of serious offenses against others the officer must be able to prove that the individual in question was an imminent threat to cause death or injury to others. And finally, for apprehension, the officer must truly believe and be able to prove the first two conditions existed and that apprehension of this individual must occur without delay. Warning shots are not authorized and verbal warnings/orders must be given prior to escalating to deadly force. 
Potential negative consequences
The potential negatives that exist with the implementation of these discretionary rules of engagement would be that officers’ reaction time may be slowed when arriving as back up on a scene or responding to a call under unknown circumstances.  Officers may also encounter situations where these guidelines do not fit appropriately with the situation they are responding to and thus it could open the officers up to liability for acting. 
The difficulty for writing policy for all situations
Creating policies that govern police discretion could prove to be difficult because it is not possible to predict every event that an officer may encounter in the field or even the actions of criminals when reacting to officer presence at the scene of a crime or other domestic disturbance.
References
Banks, C. (2016). Criminal justice ethics: Theory and practice (4th ed.). Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu
McCartney, S., & Parent, R. (2015). 7.1 The Ethics Surrounding Discretion. Bccampus. Retrieved from https://opentextbc.ca/ethicsinlawenforcement/chapter/7-1-the-ethics-surrounding-discretion/ (Links to an external site.)
What are examples of police discretion? – Mvorganizing.org. (2021). Retrieved 2 September 2021, from https://www.mvorganizing.org/what-are-examples-of-police-discretion/ (Links to an external site.)
10 CFR § 1047.7 – Use of deadly force. (2021). Retrieved 2 September 2021, from https://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/10/1047.7
DISCUSSION TWO
CLASSMATE MARLETTA’S POST
Ethical Issues Involved with privatizing correctional institutions
Some of the advantages of a private prison would be that they are lower in their cost and is less in population. There are some disadvantages to private prisons like the lack of cost-effectiveness, a lack of safety and security. I have witnessed private prisons train their officers less. There is a great amount of corruption from the prisoners and the staff. Private prisons were created to save money for some and make money for others. Although, private facilities are like state institutions when it comes to politics and money. Private prisons were created to help with the overcrowding of the federal prisons. Private prisons seem to be more dangerous due to the training of the officers are less and the population to staff ratio is larger. There is a higher risk of staff and prisoners being hurt because of the lack of training, overcrowding. Private sectors also hire staff with less education, and backgrounds.
Moral Pitfalls
Because private systems do not have the same administration to answer to some individuals may think they are following and making their own rules up as they go. They do not have the same paperwork to turn in and account for. We have created a system where private prisons do not have to answer to the same people that federal prisons do. The violence rate in private prisons is higher. The turnover rate of employees is scary. This is a disaster waiting to happen. There are many errors made due to training, and the lack of staff. Some prisoners are unethically in the system due to financial gain. Prisoners getting hurt and hurting staff is under-reported.
Distrust Warranted
There should be some distrust in place due to some leaving prisoners in for financial gain. This practice is highly criticized due to Judges sending individuals to prison for financial gain. Judges and the States Attorney Office working together for financial gain to keep some prisoners incarcerated when it’s time to make individuals happy for voting purposes. The lack of knowledge. The lack of trust from the employee to the employer. Financial gain is top on some lists, and this is not ethical or fair to all the parties involved. Money seems to be some of these individuals driving force. The Criminal Justice Field is already very stressful. If an officer does not have the trust of his r her superior it makes the job that much harder. ” (Banks, 2016, section 8.1. para. 4).
Reference
Banks, C. (2016). Criminal justice ethics: Theory and practice (4th ed.). Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu https://www.prearesourcecenter.org/implementation/prea-standards/prisons-and-jail-standards
CLASSMATE KELSEA’S POST
Ethical issues with privatizing corrections
There are many ethical issues with privatizing corrections but one that could be argued the most important is that they tend to be more dangerous (Banks, 2016). Private prisons were introduced in an attempt to save money, but it has been found that these savings are roughly only 1% and in turn there is increased dangers because there are higher inmate to staff ratios and less training (Banks, 2016). When privatizing corrections it looks good on paper to release the correctional officer with 20 years of experience and replacing him for an employee who could be paid half of the seasoned officers pay. Alternatively though the facility loses 20 years of experience which can be harmful for the new CO as well as the inmates. Additional ethical considerations is the financial gain for private prisons and how this correlation could have a motive to imprison more offenders to stay profitable (Banks, 2016).
Pitfalls of placing correctional facilities into private sectors
One of the largest pitfalls of removing correctional facilities from public sectors and into a privatized facility is that the public would no longer have any input, or awareness of what would go on inside the facility. These private facilities are not held accountable under the federal Administrative Procedures Act like the public sectors. This Act sets the guidelines and rulemaking for facilities delegated by Congress ensuring they are following the law (Garvey, 2017). Without that accountability the private sector can issue rules that do not align with the guidance from Congress.   
Is the distrust warranted?
The distrust of privatized prisons in the United States does seem warranted. It seems that there is a potential conflict of interest with the financial gain for the private sector and the deprivation of an individuals life and liberty. If the only way for the private sector to stay profitable is an increase in offenders it seems that there is less room for deterrence methods or rehabilitation programs. The distrust is also understandable from the point of view of the public correctional officers, these individuals have built raport with the inmates they attend and have extensive training on how to deal with many situations. These CO’s have distrust if their institution will be privatized because their job security will be gone, their safety at risk due to lack of newcomers training as well as the safety for the inmates. All of these considerations play an active role in the morality of prison privatization.
References
Banks, C. (2016). Criminal justice ethics: Theory and practice (4th ed.). Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu
Garvey, T. (2017) congressional research service. A brief overview of rulemaking and judicial review. Retrieved from https://sgp.fas.org/crs/misc/R41546.pdf

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